Bug validation via test harness
From counter-examples to executable tests

Explaining why a piece of code violates a particular specification is one of the most important features that an automated software analysis tool should provide. In fact, tools participating at the International Competition on Software Verification SV-COMP are mandated to provide a witness in a specific format that illustrate why a specification is violated. In a second step, the provided witness is validated by external tools (e.g. CPAChecker or Ultimate Automizer). We leave the discussion of the pros and cons of using such fixed format for future blog posts ;).

A few months back, we embarked on a journey to provide an alternative format for witness validation. Our goal was to have a format that is “dynamic” and provide a better understanding of why a property fails. For example, developers routinely use debuggers like gdb to trace the state of a program at the moment it crashes. So if you want to use a debugger in order to understand why a property is violated, you need a witness that can be executed on a machine.

In this post, we describe a shiny new feature implemented in SeaHorn – the automated generation of executable test harness for failed properties. Instead of providing a fixed format, SeaHorn will provide an object file (the witness) that can be linked with the original program and executed. How does this work in practice? Lets start with a simple piece of C code (code.c):

#include "seahorn.h"
extern int unknown1(void);

 int main(void) {
 int x=1; int y=1;
 while(unknown1()) {
   int t1 = x;
   int t2 = y;
   x = t1+ t2;
   y = t1 + t2;
   sassert(y < 1);
   return 0;

sassert(...) is defined in seahorn.h

 # define sassert(X) if(!(X)) __VERIFIER_error ()

In this code, we would like to check if y<1. The first step is to run the verification engine of SeaHorn:

sea pf --cex=witness.ll code.c

If the property is violated, SeaHorn will produce a test harness (witness.ll) as LLVM bitcode:

; ModuleID = 'harness'
target datalayout = "e-m:o-i64:64-f80:128-n8:16:32:64-S128"

@0 = private constant [1 x i32] zeroinitializer
@1 = private global i32 0

define i32 @unknown1(...) {
  %0 = load i32* @1
  %1 = add i32 %0, 1
  store i32 %1, i32* @1
  %2 = call i32 @__seahorn_get_value_i32(i32 %0, i32* getelementptr
                                    inbounds ([1 x i32]* @0, i32 0, i32 0),
                                    i32 1)
  ret i32 %2

declare i32 @__seahorn_get_value_i32(i32, i32*, i32)

In a second step, you can use another option provided in SeaHorn to link the witness object file (witness.ll) with the original code (code.c):

sea exe -m64 -g code.c witness.ll -o code_debug

Here, the file code_debug is an executable file. In fact, if you run such file:


it will output:

__seahorn_get_value_i32 0 1
__VERIFIER_error was executed

Which indicates that __VERIFIER_error (the error state) is reachable from the initial state. Hence, the property y<1 is violated. We are in the process of writing an article to explain in detail the behind the scene of this new feature. Stay tuned :)

The following screencast demonstrate a complete run of this new feature:


Written by SeaHorn on 16 October 2016